In the present day, democracy has become a vital part of people’s lives and countries’ development, and to achieve democracy must meet several conditions. The heart of democracy is voting. The heart of voting is trust that each vote is recorded and tallied with accuracy and impartiality. In order to improve voting systems for elections, there have been several proposals on using electronic technologies due to the reasons of cost savings and increased voter participation and interest. Providing information and increasing the convenience for the citizens goes hand in hand, and it also offers disabled people the possibility to use e-Voting systems. However, E-Voting is probably the most security sensitive process handled electronically nowadays. When designing an electronic voting system, it is essential to consider ways in which the voting tasks can be performed electronically without sacrificing voter privacy or introducing opportunities for fraud. For example, in 2005, German Bundestag deployed electronic vote and was discovered to have been tampered with. This fraudulent issue caused drastic consequences to Germany and Europe during that time.
The accuracy, impartiality and security are evaluated in high rate with biometric system. Electronic voting systems can improve voter identification process by utilizing biometric recognition. Biometrics is becoming an essential component of personal identification solutions, since biometric identifiers cannot be shared or misplaced, and they represent any individual’s identity. The E-voting system using biometric enables a voter to cast his vote using internet without additionally registering himself for voting in advance and going to a polling place. Biometric e-voting system has several benefits, including:
- Biometric e-voting can eliminate the cost and logistics involved with paper ballots. The costs of paper ballots must not be undermined. E-voting machines can be used over many elections and therefore the cost is reduced significantly if well implemented.
- Biometric e-voting can improve voter identification mechanisms compared to manual traditional methods of voter identification.
- Biometric e-voting can result in faster, more accurate and standardized counting of ballots.
- Biometric e-voting can minimize the fraudulent issues involved and enhance the best security during the elections.
The biometric electronic voting becomes more emerging worldwide, especially in Third World countries. According to Quartz, in the US and Western Europe, more states have been opting out of electronic voting systems and returning to paper out of worries over the number of glitches. In the US 2012 election, 56% of voters cast paper ballots that were optically scanned while only 39% used electronic voting machines. Similarly, in Europe only two countries Belgium and France use electronic ballots. Out of eight European countries that have experimented with electronic voting, six reverted back to paper ballots. In contrast, developing countries in Latin America and Asia are embracing biometric e-voting. As in Kenya’s case, moving to electronic polls is seen as a way of boosting democratic credentials, possibly increasing voter engagement, and demonstrating technological progress. Following Brazil’s lead, Venezuela, Paraguay, Panama, Costa Rica and Mexico have all implemented some form of biometric e-voting. India also uses electronic ballots across the country; and Pakistan is considering similar technology.
The biometric e-voting become a dynamic tool in the election process. This technology helps to increase the credibility of the voters’ roll and minimize the fraud involved the electoral process. The integration of biometric with electronic voting machine undoubtedly requires less manpower, saves much time of voters, eliminates rigging and ensures accuracy, transparency and fast results in election.